Jahm b Sofwan
Jahm ibn Safwān (جهم بن صفوان) was an Islamic theologian who attached himself to Al-Harith ibn Surayj, a dissident in Khurasan towards the end of the Umayyad period, and who was put to death in 746 by Salim b. Ahwaz.
He was born in Kufah, but settled down in Khurasān in Tirmidh. His birthyear is unknown, but he probably was born in the first century (hijrah). He learned under al-Ja’d b. Dirham, a theologian from Harran in Syria. al-Ja’d b. Dirham was a teacher of the last Umayyad Caliph, Marwan II, and is described as a Dahrî and Zindîq. He was the first Muslim who spoke about the createdness of the Qur’ân, the rejection of Abraham’s friendship to God and Moses’ speaking to Him. From al-Ja’d Jahm b. Safwān inherited some doctrines and would become the founder of the Jahmiyyah (see: Jahmites).
Jahm eventually took work as the assistant of Al-Harith ibn Surayj during the latter’s revolt against the Umayyad governor Nasr ibn Sayyar. During the first attempt to take Merv in 746, Jahm was killed though the revolt greatly weakened Umayyad power and indirectly contributed to the success of the Abbasid Revolution
According to Jahm ibn Safwan, only a few attributes can be predicated to God, such as creation, divine power and action whilst others such as speech cannot. Therefore, he believed that it was wrong to talk about the eternal word of the Qur’an, since God (according to Jahm) is not a speaker in the first place.
Jahm had been an exponent of extreme determinism according to which a man acts only metaphorically in the same way in which the sun acts or does something when it sets.
Jahm’s doctrines about God and His Attributes found a lot of adherence among the Mu’tazilah, who were named Jahmites by their adversaries. The Mu’tazilah are known because of their belief that the Qur’ān is created, a tenet wherein they agreed with Jahm. They would also were characterized by their adversaries as deniers of God’s Attributes in contradistinction of the affirmers from among the ahl al hadith, which would become Sunnites later on.
Jahm b. Safwān was heavily criticized and declared an unbeliever by the ahl al hadith, who were increasingly becoming affiliated to the Umayyad, and later on, Abbassid authorities . Early on, many scholars of Hadith wrote refutations of Jahm bin Safwan’s doctrines, particularly Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Bukhari, and al-Darimi.
The latter also wrote a large refutation of a prominent Jahmite by the name of Bishr b. Ghiyāth al-Mārisî wherein he declared him a Kafir (an unbeliever).
Jahm left no writings, but many Muslim scholars of the past wrote about his doctrines and a few modern scholars wrote studies of him.
Pernahkah anda mendengar orang yang mengatakan bahawa Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala tidak di mana-mana, mengingkari bahawa Allah tinggi di atas ‘Arsy, menolak semua sifat Allah (dengan nama ta’wil), mengingkari takdir, dan mengatakan Al-Qur’an adalah makhluk ??